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Soil types are classified according to many factors. They are classified on the basis of colour, depth, pH, productivity, texture and process of formation.
Soil types according to depth are as follows:
1) Shallow Soil – Soil depth less than 22.5 cm. Only shallow rooted crops are grown in such soil, e.g. Paddy, Nagli.
2) Medium deep Soil – Soil depth is 22.5 to 45 cm. Crops with medium deep roots are grown in this type of soil e.g. Sugar cane, Banana, Gram.
3) Deep soil – Soil depth is more than 45cm. Crops with long and deep roots are grown in this type a soil e.g. Mango, coconut
The committee appointed by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), classified the Indian soil in the following main groups:
The main types of soil in India are as follows:
- Red soils
- Laterites and lateritic soil
- Black soil
- Alluvial soils
- Forest & hill soils
- Peaty and marshy soils
|States||Rich in||Lacks in||Crops grown|
|Alluvial||Mainly found in the plains of Gujarat, Punjab, Haryana, UP, Bihar, Jharkhand etc.||Potash and Lime||Nitrogen and Phosphorous||Large variety of Rabi and Kharif crops such as wheat, rice, sugarcane, cotton, jute etc.|
|Black (Regur soil)||Deccan plateau- Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh,Tamil Nadu, Valleys of Krishna and Godavari.||Lime, Iron, Magnesia and Alumina, Potash||Phosphorous, Nitrogen and organic matter||Cotton, sugarcane, jowar, tobacco, wheat, rice etc.|
|Red||Eastern and southern part of the deccan plateau, Orissa, Chattisgarh and southern parts of the middle Ganga plain.||Iron and Potash||Nitrogen, Phosphorous and humus.||Wheat, rice, cotton, sugarcane and pulses|
|Laterite( Brick)||Karnataka, Kerala, Tamilnadu, Madhya Pradesh, Assam and Orissa hills.||Iron oxide and potash||Organic matter, Nitrogen, Phosphate and Calcium||Cashewnuts, tea, coffee, rubber|
|Arid and Desert||Western Rajastan, north Gujarat and southern Punjab||Soluble salts, phosphate||Humus, Nitrogen||Only drought resistant and salt tolerant crops such as barley, rape, cotton, millets maize and pulses|
|Saline and Alkaline||Western Gujarat, deltas of eastern coast, Sunderban areas of West Bengal, Punjab and Haryana||Sodium, Potassium, Magnesium||Nitrogen and Calcium||
Unfit for agriculture
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