Modern India

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Modern India can be classified into following stages,

  1. ADVENT of EUROPEANS
  2. BRITISHERS CONQUEST
  3. BRITISH administration and ECONOMIC policies
  4. REVOLTS and MOMENTS
  5. SOCIO RELIGIOUS REFORM MOVEMENTS
  6. NATIONAL MOVEMENT

1. Advent Of Europeans

The old silk route was not allowed by Turkish in 1453

1486 Diaz started and came up to South Africa and called it as Cape of storms and went back to Europe, Portugeuse and king called it as Cape of Good hope

1492 Christopher Columbus, Next Amerigo Vespucci, Italian discovered the new world i.e.south America and North America and people claimed themselves as Red Indians

Vascodigama Reached Madagaskar and there he found a Indian( Gujarathi) Merchant and with the help of him he reached Kerala(Calicut) on 17th May 1498.

Zamorin the then King of Calicut invited Vascodigama.

PORTUGUESE, DUTCH, BRITISH, DANES ( DENMARK ) and FRENCH are the Merchant Organisations started their Indian Chapter’s.

French is a Government Organisation, others were private organisations.

The PORTUGEUSE with the company name as “ESTODA DA INDIA” started their settlements at CALICUT.

ST THOM Chennai

1st governor is FRANCIS DE ALMIDA{1504-1509}.

2nd governor is ALBUQUE RAQUE{1509-1515}.

            In 1510,he defeated the BIJAPUR and conquered GOA.

In 1511,friendly treaty with Sri Krishna Devaraya.

3rd governor is NI NODE CUNHA,

Shifted capital from Kochin to Goa in 1530

4th governor is MARTIN ALFONSO DESOUJA came with ST FRANCIS XAVIER SAINT and converted the Indian people to Christianity. He alone converted around 7lakh Indian around Goa and Tamilnadu.

1556 Portuguese introduced the printing press and 1st book is SAINT PETERS CHARITA in marata language at GOA. Introduced crops like tobacco,maize and chillies in Jahangir period.

In 1632,mughal governor qasim khan of Shah Jahan defeated portuguse and Peeshwa Bajirao I of maratas defeated portu fellows,british and dutch also defeated portu fellows.

Till 1961 all the settlements were lost, only 3 left with potu fellows, Goa, Daman and Diu.

Later Indian Government after Independence acquired Goa through VIJAY MILTARY OPERATION and later Daman and Diu merged

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DUTCH

In 1602, Dutch came with united East India Company, PULIKART( till 1690) and NAGAPATNAM( After 1690) as Headquarters

Dutch gave importance to Indonesia and dutch expelled all Europeans from Indonesia and became powerful in Indonesia

In Battle Of Badera the British expelled dutch from india in 1759.

BRITISH 31 December 1600

Merchants of England formed an union and called as East India Company.

Britsh Queen ELIZABETH I passes a charter led to monopoly of 15 years.

JAMES I in JAHANGIR court ,1609, passed charter monopoly unlimited period.

In 1813 MONOPOLY ENDED and led to free trade.

BOMBAY,MADRAS and CALCCUTTA were headquarters

Madras: Damarla Venkatadri Naidu local officer gave to FRANCIS DAY and named it as CHENNAPATNAM and ST GEORGE FORT built 1639

BOMBAY: John II gave to GERALD AUNGIR for lease of 10 pounds/year in the year 1668

CALCUTTA: In 1690, Job Chornok purchased 3 villages from Mughal Governor of Aurangazeb namely Govindpur, Satnauti, Kalikata and later Fort William was built.

DANES- Dutch trade Group-1616

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It is not an organised company, Seerampur in West Bengal and Tranquebar(Head-Quarters) in Tamil Nadu were the settlements.

Later they sold all the settlements to British and left out.

FRENCH – French East India Company, 1664  and it is govt company,Pondicherry was headquarters

            FRANCOIS MARTIN 1st governor got Pondicherry from local officer

            FRANCOIS  DUPLEIX is another governor want to see end of Britishers and led to 3 Carnatic wars in Tamilnadu

1st Carnatic war—Europeans politics led to war(1746-1748)

AUSTRALIA war of succession b.w England and France in 1746 leads to this, Dupleix won the war and taken Madras in war at ST THOM.

Anwar-ud-din was the then King of Carnatic. In Europe, France lost and signed a treaty called Aix-a-Chappel and Madras given back to British.

2nd Carnatic war- [ 1749-56]

Succession over the ARKAT,Carnatic headquarters.(Anwar Vs Chanda Sahe who is his brother

NIZAM,Aurangabad head quarters

Nazar Jung Vs Mujaffar Jung

British fellow,Robert Clive,HERO of ARKAT, French Lost; Treaty of PONDICHERRY

3rd  Carnatic war  1756-1763

French governor Count De Lally defeated by Sir Iyre Koote in war of Wandiwash(Pondicherry) and he was taken as prisoner and treaty of Paris , so that French would carry the trade without military and 1954, Pondicherry given back to india in Nehru govt and in 1961 french went back.

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